Germany's Climate Throughout The Year, Land For Sale By Owner Henderson, Tx, Garlic Butter Cauliflower, Gibson Semi Hollow Body Es-355, Black Heart Copy And Paste, Globe Mallow Texas, Makita Dfn350z Review, Halo Top Strawberry Cheesecake Keto, Bowflex Selecttech 552 Dumbbells Sale, Stromatolites For Sale, Bdo Processing Exp Chart, " /> Germany's Climate Throughout The Year, Land For Sale By Owner Henderson, Tx, Garlic Butter Cauliflower, Gibson Semi Hollow Body Es-355, Black Heart Copy And Paste, Globe Mallow Texas, Makita Dfn350z Review, Halo Top Strawberry Cheesecake Keto, Bowflex Selecttech 552 Dumbbells Sale, Stromatolites For Sale, Bdo Processing Exp Chart, "> how do coyotes kill cats Germany's Climate Throughout The Year, Land For Sale By Owner Henderson, Tx, Garlic Butter Cauliflower, Gibson Semi Hollow Body Es-355, Black Heart Copy And Paste, Globe Mallow Texas, Makita Dfn350z Review, Halo Top Strawberry Cheesecake Keto, Bowflex Selecttech 552 Dumbbells Sale, Stromatolites For Sale, Bdo Processing Exp Chart, " />

HOME     CONTACT     ADVERTISE     SPONSORS     MY ACCOUNT

Uncategorized

how do coyotes kill cats

How Do Cats Show Dominance To Other Cats? So, a cat likes to move quietly. We captured, radiocollared, and tracked 8 coyotes from November 2005 to February 2006 for 790 hours in Tucson, Arizona, USA. ADDENDUM: Cafe Moch V. is VERY correct. (Photo: Supplied) 18. Cats are also small enough that a coyote might view them as a possible meal. I’ve seen them jump the 6 foot block wall behind my house–into the yard and then out. Coyotes are one of the main causes of sudden death in cats in America. Several weeks before the pups are born, the coy… To be effective, your fence should have the following features: Check your fence regularly for any weak points or signs of damage. Or at a minimum keep them inside at night when coyotes are more active. The truth is, you may not find much evidence with a coyote kill. Any pets left outside overnight should be kept in secure cages. Coyotes kill cats and have neighbors on edge in College Park Michelle Conklin’s cat Thomas spent nights outside of their College Park home, only to come to inside in the morning for breakfast. Even cats that are cunning and very aggressive can become prey for coyotes. According to USDA, coyotes can live in swamps, grassland, mountains, deserts, and urban environments. How Often Do Coyotes Kill Cats? This explains how they’ve been able to grow as a species. Dogs on the other hand, are sloppy, they tear the neck, belly, and genitals and leave large flesh wounds. “That’s one of the benefits of having predators in the environment -- they help keep the balance of nature and help prevent cats from overrunning it.” Coyotes are often blamed for missing pets, and while this is sometimes the case, they may not always be the culprits. Coyotes eat anything they can catch, and cats are small (like rabbits) and not as fast as a coyote. This had to be a bobcat that took its time in its comings and goings of demolishing our chicken population. Drape it over a fence on the far side of the property. I do keep my other two inside at night and supervise them outside now. Many of the hunters are taking them down and killing coyotes on a daily basis. When you allow your cat to roam freely outdoors, even for short periods of time, you expose her to perils such as cars, dogs, diseases, coyotes, poisons and cruel people. Other signs you may be dealing with a coyote (assuming you actually find the body or remains) are wounds on the shoulders, flank, or hindquarters. Coyotes are rarely a threat to full-grown humans, but are often dangerous to pets and small kids. In contrast, wolves would frequently kill coyotes but not consume them. Today you’ll discover how to decrease the risk of a coyote attack to keep your big dog safe. How do coyotes kill their prey? The opening to the shelter is big enough for a cat to enter, but too small for a coyote. Coyotes will eat feral and domestic cats. It’s long been known that coyotes attack pets, but there’s also a sense that cats can scamper up a tree if they sense danger, says Harris. The fence should extend under the ground at least 6 inches. Yes, they are carnivorous animals. Coyotes are most fond of hunting small mammals. A predator the size of a large dog, which is basically exactly what a coyote is, can easily overpower a cat. They may also become more hostile and territorial to protect their pups. If you come across a coyote that is very confident and aggressive around humans, you can report the problem to your local Fish and Wildlife Office. Generally, the only coyotes dangerous to people are habituated coyotes, i.e. The coyote is however a massive danger to farm animals. I've heard that coyote cat attacks are swift. They might also run away from a cat that’s stalking them. I've Got Pictures Of One Hunting Neighbor Cats At 11 Am. Coyotes will eat feral and domestic cats. Although coyotes do attack and kill domestic cats in the Chicago area, cat attacks are often more difficult to substantiate than dog attacks. Because they are intelligent and adaptable, coyotes view human habitats less as a threat and more as an opportunity. What are the chances a coyote got my cat? Cats can survive an attack by a coyote, but coyotes almost always win the fight. As for do the cats suffer, I think it is over in a quick second. The most common kill style is a bite to the throat. The truth is, you may not find much evidence with a coyote kill. Shoot a coyote and then hang the carcass as a warning to other coyotes. Will Cutting the Grass Keep Coyotes Away? Urban coyotes are deadly hunters, tracking rodents, rabbits and other small prey. This will stop coyotes from burrowing underneath the fence. Small carnivores, such as weasels, bobcats or roaming house cats, don’t feature much in the coyote diet; although they are about the right size for a meal, they aren’t usually worth the effort. If other residents welcome coyotes into their gardens, advise them of the risks. You just need a good game call to call them in. Female coyotes are especially defensive during the breeding season, which runs from mid-spring to early summer, depending on the region and food supply. Favourite answer . Usually, when a coyote grabs your pet, its too late, since the death is pretty sudden and quick. It happened around 6 a.m. earlier this month. He is the proud owner of 5 adult cats (all adopted strays), including a senior cat who is now 20. Soaking clothes in ammonia and tying these to the top of your fence may help to deter coyotes. Are Coyotes Carnivorous? Coyotes usually kill rodents, fish and rabbits, but they will consider killing cats as well. Before killing a small animal, a…, Silence is golden for cats. Richard earned his degree in journalism in 2008. How Often Do Coyotes Kill Cats? If a coyote chases a cat into a shelter, you’ll hear screaming and howling. I asked her, did all 9 disappear at one time, or … Coyotes are mostly, although not entirely, nocturnal. If they smell something they like, they will stop to explore further. Protecting your pet cat. While they generally do not attack humans, coyotes often attack and kill smaller sized dogs and cats. I'm incredibly skeptical, given their framing. Cats, especially large, aggressive ones, might end up in a confrontation with a coyote. Coyotes certainly could kill cats if they wanted to. Cats do have the ability to escape as they are far better climbers, but don’t always have the opportunity. During this period, they recorded 36 coyote attacks on cats. Coyotes kill cats for food. … That’s something many cat owners are loath to do. Coyotes have become suburban and urbanites over the years. What happens when cats and coyotes are in the same area? Urban coyotes have a fierce and formidable reputation as midnight predators that stalk and kill our beloved pets, especially small dogs and outdoor cats. c) tear their bodies specifically. Coyotes will hunt in pairs or packs to take down larger prey, such as deer. Coyotes hunt using their olfactory senses and keen eyesight. Generally, the only coyotes dangerous to people are habituated coyotes, i.e. Coyotes will catch a surplus of food and store it for later. “After that, even young pups generally sleep in the woods – even on nasty, rainy days” (Way 2012). Can coyotes kill big dogs? RCMP said coyotes will hunt cats, especially when they are training their pups how to hunt and may “leave the cat looking like it was cut open as a way to interest their pups in eating prey.” Their prey consists mostly of pretty small animals, such as rodents, lizards and rabbits, carrion, insects and even vegetation. Other signs you may be dealing with a coyote (assuming you actually find the body or remains) are wounds on the shoulders, flank, or hindquarters. There was almost always a single bite, with little blood and and a broken neck. But when it comes to whether cats can protect their owners, are they simply looking for a fight,…, To own a cat is to accept feline instinct. b) crush their head specifically. Based on observations of coyotes in Tuscan, Arizona, Grubbs and Krausman (2009) reported the alarming find that cats constituted 42% of coyote diets. Why do coyotes kill and not eat? They take longer to kill their prey. According to The Guardian, cats make up 20% of an urban coyote’s diet. Protecting your pet cat. The Cougar Network has put together a very nice guide which describes the differences between canine (either domestic dog or coyote) kills and wild cat (such as … This especially applies if the coyote is unusually hungry, perhaps from having lost another food source, or the cat is elderly, ill or overweight. “Coyotes will kill cats,” Kays said. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. Coyotes are resourceful by nature. Coyotes can run 40 miles an hour, so cats cannot outrun coyotes. March. Cats are usually very defensive when threatened by another animal. The researchers concluded that any cat outside is vulnerable to coyote attack, and recommended that cat owners keep their cats indoors. Urban coyotes eat a varied, and rather revolting diet, of rodents, food scraps and, occasionally, pets. I thought they just ate small animals and had a similar diet to feral cats.why do they bother cats so much? Due to urban expansion there is much more contact between household pets and coyotes. Hunting/Trapping. If you don’t want an 8-foot-tall fence, put a coyote roller on the top of a 6-foot fence to make it more effective. Home security cameras captured two coyotes attack and kill a cat. If you see coyotes in your garden, try to scare them off immediately, even if your cat is indoors. It was conducted by three scientists: Grubs, Shannon E. and Paul R Krausman and it is called Observations of Coyote-Cat … 2019 | 06:00. Answer Save. While they generally do not attack humans, coyotes often attack and kill smaller sized dogs and cats. The most common kill style is a bite to the throat. Coyotes have taken readily to an urban or suburban existence. If your cat does go outside, call him indoors well before dusk and don’t let him out again until morning. This explains how they’ve been able to grow as a species. You just need a good game call to call them in. Coyotes are predators. I'm Richard, the lead writer for Senior Cat Wellness. If an animal is easy to get to, and small enough to not pose a likely threat of physical harm to the coyote, then that animal is fair game. However, cats can climb tall trees to escape coyotes if their response time is quick enough, but may not be able to get down from the tree. Favorite Answer. Coyotes can travel up to 65 km2 each night. You know when do coyotes hunt and about their hunting techniques…..? Why do coyotes kill cats? They occasionally kill cats, but I think the cat-killing coyote stereotype is somewhat overblown. How exactly do coyotes kill cats? “That’s one of the benefits of having predators in the environment -- they help keep the balance of nature and help prevent cats from overrunning it Why Do Cats Play with Their Prey before Killing Them? They are a carnivorous predator and cats are on the menu for them, as well as most any other small animal. Adult Cat. A predator the size of a large dog, which is basically exactly what a coyote is, can easily overpower a cat. wild animals that are accustomed to being fed by humans. Coyotes don’t just kill when they’re hungry. They wait for their opportunity until they catch their loose prey. Nowadays, coyotes live all over the U.S, Mexico, Central America, and most of Canada. Coyotes feed on any free-roaming cat around whether it is tame, feral, or a stray cat. They will gladly consume roadkill. Coyotes aren't the only threat cats face when they go outside—there are far greater dangers. During this period, they recorded 36 coyote attacks on cats. In one study, researchers followed 8 coyotes for 4 months, in Arizona. The coyote breeding season runs from mid-January to early February (in Massachusetts), and the pups are born 60-66 days later in mid-March to early April (Way 2012). A coyote will eat a cat if they hunt and catch one.YES - if coyotes are in the area, cats are at high risk of being eaten. Will Cutting the Grass Keep Coyotes Away? Do coyotes kill cats? 1 of 2 Go to page.

Coyotes can leap quite high too. wolves, coyotes can kill large prey such as deer and elk, especially when hunting in groups. Coyotes (Canis latrans) pose a risk to domestic cats (Felis catus). Do Coyote eat cats? House cats may be considered easier prey because they are usually less vicious and savvy. Coyotes are known to prey on free-roaming cats, whether ferals, strays or pets, while free-roaming cats, on the whole, have been shown to kill great numbers of birds, small rodents and reptiles. If you want your cat to be 100% protected while outdoors, you should install a Cattio or cat enclosure. According to the Urban Coyote Research Project, about 80% of animals attacked by coyotes are smaller animals. Coyotes will definitely kill cats and smaller dogs. Coyotes hunt and kill many cows, deer, rabbits, elk and pets and eat them so it seems important to control their population. Also, avoid attracting coyotes by ensuring garbage is animal-proof and that no pet or bird food is left lying around overnight. 5 Answers. Coyotes are omnivores: they eat small rodents as well as local vegetation (berries, fruits, nuts). Although, there appears to have been very few studies about the interaction between coyotes and cats, one took place in Tuscan, Arizona in 2009. Aug 26, 2018 #1 35 year catdad TCS Member Thread starter. Absolutely, but so do foxes, dogs, bobcats, vehicles, and even great horned owls. The study showed the cat killings typically happened between June and October, with 80 per cent occurring in August and September. Do wolves kill coyotes? “Coyotes will kill cats,” Kays said. But it is unsafe to let a cat roam free at night, especially in coyote pup-rearing season between May and August. The Washington Post suggests that coyotes prefer flat, open spaces so that they can see predators and prey more clearly. I skimmed through the paper you referenced. Coyotes can and will eat cats if the opportunity presents itself. And what right do we have to kill off another species? Killings are most likely to occur between 10 PM and 5 AM, in urban areas. You can also do this yourself. Any cat that goes outside is vulnerable to a coyote attack. If you don’t want to buy a coyote roller, use chicken wire instead. Next Last. What happens when cats and coyotes are in the same area? But a new study of the two species shows that feral cats … Joined Nov 20, 2017 Messages 240 Reaction score 371 Location Santa Rosa Ca. Of particular concern to owners’ of lost or outdoor-access cats is how frequently coyotes eat cats.

Coyotes can run 40 miles an hour, so cats cannot outrun coyotes. According to Coyote Yipps, coyotes might ignore cats if a better food source is on offer. In all, the scientists observed 45 instances of coyotes consuming prey and fruit. Coyotes will attack household pets, but the numbers are difficult to pin down because it's hard to prove a coyote … If you find yourself strongly disagreeing with this article, then you may live in an area where coyotes do indeed eat more cats. Lone attacks on cats are also less successful than pack attacks. Coyotes will feed on cats. Even if a cat does survive, it will likely have life-changing injuries. Given their relative sizes, a cat is not likely to win such an encounter. In most cases, you can scare a coyote by doing the following: Never run away from a coyote because it may think that you’re prey. Outdoors cats must co-exist with coyotes if they can. They are a carnivorous predator and cats are on the menu for them, as well as most any other small animal. Pet chickens or rabbits are the most at risk, but coyotes may attack any pet up to their own size, and sometimes bigger. 8 years ago. Neighbors said other pets have … America/Tegucigalpa. When you allow your cat to roam freely outdoors, even for short periods of time, you expose her to perils such as cars, dogs, diseases, coyotes, poisons and cruel people. University of Florida IFAS Extension: The Coyote (Canida latrans) – Florida’s Newest Predator, Humane Society of the United States: Preventing Coyote Conflicts. Game wardens and rangers can help control coyotes by hunting or trapping. Smells that interest them include: Cutting the grass may reduce unwanted animals, such as foxes. Another option is a coyote-proof cat shelter. Coyotes are only dangerous to humans when they are protecting their young, when they feel threatened, or if they have rabies. What are the chances a coyote got my cat? All household pets that kept outside or are allowed out are at risk from an opportunistic coyote attack. Go. If you want your cat to be safe, keep her indoors. It’s not a good long-term solution. Coyotes actually only use dens when they are raising their pups and stop using them when the pups are 8-10 weeks old. Answer Save. They are also extremely adaptable, so they can live almost anywhere. The only way of ensuring that your cat is 100% safe from coyotes is to keep your pet indoors permanently. wild animals that are accustomed to being fed by humans. Coyotes certainly could kill cats if they wanted to. So, surely this means that the only thing that could be better than owning one cat is two cats.…. You should also build a 6-foot-high fence to keep coyotes out of your yard. This tells the coyote it’s not safe in your garden, so they are less likely to return to your property in the future. Coyotes aren't the only threat cats face when they go outside—there are far greater dangers. I am assuming the type of cat you are talking about is a common house cat, and they would really be no threat to a coyote. We don’t know how often cats are killed by coyotes because the majority of feline deaths go completely undetected. Do coyotes kill cats quickly? Don't coyotes eat dogs and cats? Shoot a coyote and then hang the carcass as a warning to other coyotes. Bad coyote-cat encounters don't occur that often, but they do happen. Coyotes are only dangerous to humans when they are protecting their young, when they feel threatened, or if they have rabies. If an animal is easy to get to, and small enough to not pose a likely threat of physical harm to the coyote, then that animal is fair game. Some cats are happy to be submissive, while others will fight back and…, If your cat kisses you on the lips, it is expressing significant affection. Welcome to the Big Dog Den, I’m glad you’re here! In fact, I listened to a seminar given by a biologist who studied sheep kills make by dogs and coyotes. Cats usually hiss, spit and buff up their fur and also produce sharp claws in an attempt to scare away its offender. They may have the drive to kill animals, but not the finesse of the wolf, fox, or coyote. The ONLY way to guarantee that coyotes cannot/will not harm your cats is to keep them inside. We don’t know how often cats are killed by coyotes because the majority of feline deaths go completely undetected. a) snap the back of the neck specifically. 19 of these attacks resulted in a cat dying. Lv 7. There are millions of coyotes across the country and many of them venture into urban environments. You can then go outside and chase the coyote away. State wildlife officials warn coyotes do prey on domestic cats and small dogs. Among scores of confrontations between coyotes and cats, cats were killed more than half the time. Coyotes Kill Cats In The Daytime! If you allow your cat in the yard unsupervised, you should build a coyote-proof fence. They may also be omnivorous but mostly carnivorous. How Often Do Coyotes Kill Cats? Many people keep their cats indoors because of the risk of predation by coyotes. These won’t offer 100% protection, but they will help to keep your cat safe from coyote attacks. For your cat to express fondness for you physically…, Sharing your home with a cat is a very rewarding experience. If you let your cat in the yard, it should have a coyote-proof cat shelter to escape if there’s an attack. A coyote wouldn't have been able to pull back the mesh or slip through such a tight space. Controlling any nuisance animal is important. Donkey brays really do keep coyotes away. While they may not distinguish between a cat or one of their preferred prey species (such as rabbits or voles), they do not utilize domestic dogs as a common food source. Competition is part of the picture, but wolves also kill coyotes. I'm incredibly skeptical, given their framing. e) just attack any part of it until it stops moving. Where I live, we have roving packs of coyotes that mostly come out at night. I'm experienced in all cat health-related matters, behavioral issues, grooming techniques, and general pet care. One animal control my sister talked to says he has found up to 35 small collars in a coyote den in the ravines near suburban areas. He could tell which sheep the coyotes killed by the fact that the kill was clean. I’m afraid that the answer is yes, coyotes can injure (and even kill) a big dog. Many people ask, do coyotes kill cats? A coyote uses a quick bite, shake, and release kill method which rattles the internal organs and forces the animal to collapse (even if the neck has… Donkey brays really do keep coyotes away. As cats are born hunters, they often kill live prey such as mice or birds. Coyotes used to live in the Southwest regions of the U.S. Over time, they have spread to other parts of the country. They don’t mind living next to humans, and associated pets, and take full advantage of the food available. Researchers at The University of California have designed a Coyote Encounters Map. We have a pack of coyotes, I heard them last night. d) something else specifically. The diet was composed of 42% cats, 33.3% rodents, 17.8% lagamorphs (rabbits), 2.2% birds and 6.6% dates. The agency notes that text below the symbol reads “it is illegal to use this product with the intention to kill raccoons, skunks, opossums, coyotes, wolves, dogs, cats, extirpated from much of their historic habitat in the 48 contiguous U.S. states and eastern Canada, and wolves. They are also more likely to occur between May and August, during the coyote pup-rearing season. Ruby. Individuals will prey upon smaller animals, such as squirrels, rodents, birds, and even domestic cats. Judith Willson has been writing since 2009, specializing in environmental and scientific topics. While mice and rabbits may be easier to snag, a coyote won’t refuse a cat if it’s easy prey. These can be expensive and impractical for some gardens, though. Anonymous. There are more attacks between May and August because adult coyotes need to find food for their young to eat. Mankind’s tried extermination, and the coyote nation has thrived. I've seen them walking down neighborhood streets with peoples’ dead cats and small dogs in their mouths. 9 Answers. Based on observations of coyotes in Tuscan, Arizona, Grubbs and Krausman (2009) reported the alarming find that cats constituted 42% of coyote diets. Coyotes in some areas appear to become "specialists" at catching and killing cats. I feel your pain I miss my cat every day. For example, coyotes have set up home in places like New York, Phoenix, Denver, and Los Angeles. But another possibility is that coyotes perceive dark porches and lawns as secure places to eat their prey.” Some city coyotes also appear to be learning how to specialize in hunting cats, she noted. If coyotes are prevalent in your area, it would be wise to keep all pets inside during this time, only allowing them out under supervision. If you want to deter coyotes from your neighborhood, get other residents involved. However, in the Grubbs-Krausman study, of the 45 instances where coyotes were observed feeding, 42% of the meals were cats. Thread starter 35 year catdad; Start Date Aug 26, 2018; 1; 2; Next. It’s also common for people to feed their pets outside and then leave the dishes out overnight. Most cats enjoy going outside, so it would be a shame to keep them inside all the time. Any coyote that attempts to climb the fence will fall back down. This allows you to browse and record coyote sightings in California and across the U.S. Coyotes live for around 14 years, and they find it very easy to reproduce. Yes. It must be at least 6 feet tall, but ideally 8 feet tall. 1 decade ago. Don’t worry though Coyote attacks on cats aren’t too common and there is plenty you can do to minimise the risk. Most coyote attacks on pets happen either at night, in the early evenings or in the early mornings (dusk and dawn). Tidy, manicured lawns may be welcoming for coyotes. Coyotes are rarely a threat to full-grown humans, but are often dangerous to pets and small kids. Our pet cats tend to be tame, which means an easy meal for a coyote. Some people don’t realize that they’re encouraging coyotes. Yes, coyotes do eat cats. This study also found that both packs and individuals would successfully attack and kill cats. Coyotes will definitely kill cats and smaller dogs. Yet very little is known about the risk to cats from coyotes, and the extent to which populations overlap. Coyotes, pets and community cats. Due to urban expansion there is much more contact between household pets and coyotes. Hunting/Trapping. Cats killed by coyotes are often found on front lawns and porches, likely because they run to those areas seeking cover, according to U of A expert Colleen Cassady St. Clair. Will a coyote eat a cat? He could tell which sheep the coyotes killed by the fact that the kill was clean. Other studies have found that approximately 13% of a coyote's diet consists of cats. When installed properly, they are effective at keeping coyotes out. Cats and Coyotes. Educating your neighbors will protect all cats in your area. During this period, they recorded 36 coyote attacks on cats. Hope you know that you are still a great pet owner and the cat will always be a part of you. To protect your cat, keep it indoors, or allow it outside only under supervision. Bad coyote-cat encounters don’t occur that often, but they do happen. Felines are born hunters, as well as being prey to other species. So, even a well-nourished coyote may kill cats. If you have any information about it, feel free to share with us below in the comment section. Coyote roller bars will keep the coyotes out but also the cats. Local cat killings linked to coyotes, study shows. Throwing a tennis ball or shoe at the coyote, Spraying the hose or throwing water in their direction. Cats are not always fulsome about their feelings. If you want your cat to be safe, keep her indoors. Many people ask, do coyotes kill cats? Do Coyotes Kill Feral Cats? Being extraordinarily adaptive opportunist survivors, coyotes indeed will eat domestic cats and small dogs, as well as a wide range of rodents and other smaller wild animals. 19 of these attacks resulted in a cat dying. She has written content for school websites and worked for a Glasgow newspaper. Coyotes are opportunists--if it's food, and they can catch it, they'll eat it. As cats are born hunters, they often kill live prey such as mice or birds. Relevance. There's ZERO "specifically",since all 'yotes are individuals,as are all cats. For example, it’s quite common for people to put cooked food or meat trimmings in the compost. Sometimes, feral cats are on the menu. A predator the size of a large dog, which is basically exactly what a coyote is, can easily overpower a cat.

Germany's Climate Throughout The Year, Land For Sale By Owner Henderson, Tx, Garlic Butter Cauliflower, Gibson Semi Hollow Body Es-355, Black Heart Copy And Paste, Globe Mallow Texas, Makita Dfn350z Review, Halo Top Strawberry Cheesecake Keto, Bowflex Selecttech 552 Dumbbells Sale, Stromatolites For Sale, Bdo Processing Exp Chart,

Your Ad Could Be Here
Contact Jeremy Elliott at 1-717-805-0483
Click to comment

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

To Top